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Follistatin-344 Peptide: Effect on Muscle (Explained)

Evidence-Based. Scientifically Reviewed.

Follistatin-344, a variant of the protein follistatin, is noted for its influence on muscle growth and repair processes.

This article delves into the mechanisms of Follistatin-344, elucidating its role in muscular development and potential implications.


Follistatin-344 is a naturally occurring peptide, part of the follistatin family, which is encoded by the FST gene.

It's a monomeric glycoprotein, consisting of 344 amino acids.

Follistatin is expressed in almost all tissues of higher animals, with its primary function being the binding and bioneutralization of members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily.

It has a particular focus on activin.

Mechanism of Action

Follistatin-344 exerts its effects primarily through the inhibition of myostatin, a growth differentiation factor that is a member of the TGF-β superfamily.

Myostatin is known for its role in regulating and limiting muscle growth.

It acts as a myokine, a type of cytokine released by muscle cells, and controls the size of muscles by inhibiting myoblast proliferation.

By binding to and inhibiting myostatin, Follistatin-344 can potentially enhance muscle tissue growth and repair.

Effects on Muscle Physiology

The majority of the research on Follistatin surrounds its impact on muscle.

1. Muscle Growth

Research indicates that Follistatin-344 plays a significant role in muscle growth.

Its ability to bind and neutralize myostatin can remove the 'brake' on muscle development, potentially leading to increased muscle size and strength.

This process involves the proliferation of satellite cells, which are crucial for muscle regeneration and hypertrophy.

2. Muscle Repair and Healing

Besides muscle growth, Follistatin-344 is also implicated in muscle repair and healing processes.

By modulating the activity of various growth factors, it may enhance the muscle's ability to repair itself after injury.

This could be particularly relevant in conditions that involve muscle wasting or degeneration.

Research and Applications

While the potential of Follistatin-344 in enhancing muscle physiology is evident, it's important to note that much of the research is in the experimental stages, primarily conducted in animal models.

Human studies are necessary to fully understand its efficacy and safety profile.

Potential Therapeutic Implications

The properties of Follistatin-344 hold promise for several therapeutic applications, particularly in diseases characterized by muscle wasting, such as muscular dystrophy, and in conditions requiring enhanced muscle repair.

However, the therapeutic use of Follistatin-344 must be approached with caution, considering the complex nature of the TGF-β superfamily and the risk of unintended effects on other physiological processes.


Follistatin-344 represents a fascinating aspect of muscle biology, with its potent myostatin-inhibiting properties positioning it as a key player in muscle growth and repair.

While its potential in therapeutic contexts is promising, further research is essential to fully harness its capabilities and ensure safe application.

As with all compounds, the implications of Follistatin-344 extend beyond the laboratory, emphasizing the need for a comprehensive understanding of its role in humans.

Important Notice:

The information provided here about Follistatin-344 is for educational and informative purposes only. It is not meant as medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment recommendation. This document does not endorse the unauthorized or non-prescribed use of Follistatin-344 or any other experimental treatments.


1. Haidet AM, Rizo L, Handy C, Umapathi P, Eagle A, Shilling C, Boue D, Martin PT, Sahenk Z, Mendell JR, Kaspar BK. Long-term enhancement of skeletal muscle mass and strength by single gene administration of myostatin inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 18;105(11):4318-22. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0709144105. Epub 2008 Mar 11. PMID: 18334646; PMCID: PMC2393740.

2. Kota J, Handy CR, Haidet AM, Montgomery CL, Eagle A, Rodino-Klapac LR, Tucker D, Shilling CJ, Therlfall WR, Walker CM, Weisbrode SE, Janssen PM, Clark KR, Sahenk Z, Mendell JR, Kaspar BK. Follistatin gene delivery enhances muscle growth and strength in nonhuman primates. Sci Transl Med. 2009 Nov 11;1(6):6ra15. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3000112. PMID: 20368179; PMCID: PMC2852878.

3. Chang F, Fang R, Wang M, Zhao X, Chang W, Zhang Z, Li N, Meng Q. The transgenic expression of human follistatin-344 increases skeletal muscle mass in pigs. Transgenic Res. 2017 Feb;26(1):25-36. doi: 10.1007/s11248-016-9985-x. Epub 2016 Oct 27. PMID: 27787698.

4. Rodino-Klapac LR, Haidet AM, Kota J, Handy C, Kaspar BK, Mendell JR. Inhibition of myostatin with emphasis on follistatin as a therapy for muscle disease. Muscle Nerve. 2009 Mar;39(3):283-96. doi: 10.1002/mus.21244. PMID: 19208403; PMCID: PMC2717722.

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